Mars is the second littlest planet and fourth in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman divine force of war, it is regularly alluded to as the "Red Planet" in light of the fact that the iron oxide common on its surface gives it a ruddy appearance. Mars is a physical planet with a slim climate, having surface elements reminiscent both of the effect holes of the satellite and the valleys, volcanoes, deserts, and polar ice tops of Earth.
Mars' normal separation from the Sun is around 230 million kilometers (143,000,000 mi), and its orbital period is 687 (Earth) days. The sun oriented day on Mars is just marginally more than an Earth day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. A Martian year is equal to 1.8809 Earth eras, or 1 year, 320 days, and 18.2 hours.
The hub tilt of Mars is 25.19 degrees in respect to its orbital plane, which is like the hub tilt of Earth. Accordingly, Mars has seasons like Earth, however on Mars, they are about twice as long on the grounds that its orbital period is that any longer.
The rotational period and occasional cycles of Mars are in like manner like those of Earth, similar to the tilt that creates the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the biggest well of lava and second-most raised up known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the biggest gullies in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis bowl in the northern side of the equator covers 40% of the planet and may be a monster effect highlight. Mars has two moderately little normal moons, Phobos (around 22 km (14 mi) in measurement) and Deimos (around 12 km (7.5 mi) in distance across), which circle near the planet.
Mars is around a large portion of the breadth of Earth, and its surface range is just somewhat not exactly the aggregate zone of Earth's dry area. Mars is less thick than Earth, having around 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of Earth's mass. Mars normally shows up unmistakably yellow, orange, or red; the genuine shade of Mars is closer to butterscotch, and the redness seen is simply tidy in the planet's climate.
Fluid water can't exist on the surface of Mars because of low air weight, which is around 100 times more slender than Earth's, with the exception of at the most minimal rises for brief periods. The two polar ice tops have all the earmarks of being made to a great extent of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice top, if softened, would be adequate to cover the whole planetary surface to a profundity of 11 meters (36 ft). A permafrost mantle extends from the shaft to scopes of around 60°.Large amounts of water ice are thought to be caught inside of the thick cryosphere of Mars.Landforms obvious on Mars unequivocally recommend that fluid water has existed on the planet's surface. Tremendous straight swathes of scoured ground, known as outpouring channels, cut over the surface in around 25 places. One of the bigger samples is Ma'adim Vallis. It is thought to have been cut by streaming water at a very early stage in Mars' history. The most youthful of these channels are thought to have shaped as of late as just a couple of million years prior.
The absence of a magnetosphere and the to a great degree flimsy air of Mars are a test: the planet has little warmth exchange over its surface, poor protection against assault of the sun based wind and deficient air weight to hold water in a fluid structure (water rather sublimes to a vaporous state). Mars is likewise almost, or maybe absolutely, topographically dead; the end of volcanic movement has clearly halted the reusing of chemicals and minerals between the surface and inside of the planet. Proof proposes that the planet was once fundamentally more tenable than it is today, yet whether living beings ever existed there stays obscure. Of the considerable number of planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, because of the comparable tilts of the two planets' rotational tomahawks. The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's on the grounds that Mars' more noteworthy separation from the Sun prompts the Martian year being around two Earth years long. Martian surface temperatures fluctuate from lows of about −143 °C (−225 °F) at the winter polar tops to highs of up to 35 °C (95 °F) in tropical summer. The wide range in temperatures is because of the flimsy environment which can't store much sun powered warmth, the low barometrical weight, and the low warm inactivity of Martian soil. The planet is additionally 1.52 times as a long way from the Sun as Earth, bringing about only 43% of the measure of daylight.
Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years back, conceivably in view of various space rock strikes, so the sun based wind cooperates straightforwardly with the Martian ionosphere, bringing down the climatic thickness by stripping ceaselessly particles from the external layer. Contrasted with Earth, the climate of Mars is entirely tenuous. The subsequent mean surface weight is just 0.6% of that of Earth (101.3 kPa). The scale tallness of the climate is around 10.8 km (6.7 mi), which is higher than Earth's (6 km (3.7 mi)) in light of the fact that the surface gravity of Mars is just around 38% of Earth's, an impact balance by both the lower temperature and half higher normal sub-atomic weight of the air of Mars.
The environment of Mars comprises of around 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen alongside hints of oxygen and water. The environment is entirely dusty, containing particulates around 1.5 µm in width which give the Martian sky a brownish shading when seen from the surface.