A fountain of liquid magma is a burst on the outside layer of a planetary-mass article, for example, Earth, that permits hot magma, volcanic fiery remains, and gasses to escape from a magma chamber beneath the surface.
Earth's volcanoes happen on the grounds that its covering is broken into 17 noteworthy, inflexible tectonic plates that buoy on a more sultry, gentler layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are by and large discovered where tectonic plates are wandering or uniting. For instance, a mid-maritime edge, for example, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes brought about by dissimilar tectonic plates pulling separated; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes created by concurrent tectonic plates meeting up. Volcanoes can likewise frame where there is extending and diminishing of the outside layer's inside plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This kind of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate speculation" volcanism. Volcanism far from plate limits has additionally been clarified as mantle crest. These supposed "hotspots", for instance Hawaii, are proposed to emerge from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle limit, 3,000 km somewhere down in the Earth. Volcanoes are normally not made where two tectonic plates slidepast each other.
Emitting volcanoes can posture numerous perils, not just in the prompt region of the emission. One such risk is that volcanic fiery remains can be a danger to flying machine, specifically those with plane motors where powder particles can be softened by the high working temperature; the liquefied particles then hold fast to the turbine sharp edges and modify their shape, disturbing the operation of the turbine. Expansive ejections can influence temperature as cinder and beads of sulfuric corrosive darken the sun and cool the Earth's lower environment (or troposphere); be that as it may, they additionally ingest warmth emanated up from the Earth, subsequently warming the upper air (or stratosphere). Generally, purported volcanic winters have created cataclysmic starvation.
At the mid-maritime edges, two tectonic plates separate from each other as new maritime outside layer is shaped by the cooling and hardening of hot liquid rock. Since the covering is slight at these edges because of the draw of the tectonic plates, the arrival of weight prompts adiabatic extension and the halfway liquefying of the mantle, bringing about volcanism and making new maritime outside layer. Most disparate plate limits are at the base of the seas; subsequently, most volcanic action is submarine, framing new ocean bottom. Dark smokers (otherwise called remote ocean vents) are a case of this sort of volcanic action. Where the mid-maritime edge is above ocean level, volcanic islands are framed, for instance, Iceland.
Subduction zones are spots where two plates, normally a maritime plate and a mainland plate, impact. For this situation, the maritime plate subducts, or submerges under the mainland plate shaping a profound sea trench simply seaward. In a procedure called flux softening, water discharged from the subducting plate brings down the liquefying temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, making magma. This magma has a tendency to be exceptionally thick because of its high silica content, so frequently does not achieve the surface and cools at profundity. When it reaches the surface, a fountain of liquid magma is framed. Ordinary illustrations of this sort of well of lava are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
"Hotspots" is the name given to volcanic zones accepted to be shaped by mantle tufts, which are theorized to be sections of hot material ascending from the center mantle limit in a settled space that causes vast volume dissolving. Since tectonic plates move crosswise over them, every fountain of liquid magma gets to be lethargic and is in the long run improved as the plate propels over the proposed tuft. The Hawaiian Islands have been recommended to have been shaped in such a way, and also the Snake River Plain, with the Yellowstone Caldera being the piece of the North American plate at present over the problem area. This hypothesis is as of now under feedback, however.